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GuidLines

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GuidLines


  • Dangerous files

    Disposal of hazardous waste Waste is hazardous when it has properties that might make it harmful to human health or the environment. The term (hazardous) does not always mean that such waste is immediately harmful, though some can be. What types of waste are hazardous? Domestic wastes that may be hazardous include: asbestos pesticides fluorescent tubes oils some paints some household and car batteries batteries and discarded electrical equipment such as TVs and computer monitors, fridges and freezers. How to dispose of hazardous waste ? Hazardous waste should not normally be disposed of in the mixed municipal waste collection (such as household and garden waste). In some cases, your local council may be able to collect the waste from you. There may be a charge for this. Alternatively, you may be able to deliver it to a household recycling or civic amenity site free-of-charge. Your local council will be able to advise you on where to take all types of hazardous waste in your area. Batteries All shops that sell large amounts of household batteries must provide a collection bin for used batteries. You may also be able to put old batteries in your regular household recycling bins or take them to a waste and recycling centre. Car batteries should also be taken to a waste and recycling centre. Some shops that sell car batteries also accept old batteries for recycling. Check when you buy a new car battery to see if the shop will recycle your old battery for you. Oil You are responsible for the oil you use and for disposing of it safely and legally when you no longer need it. You are also legally responsible for making sure that your oil doesn’t cause pollution. If your waste oil is a lubricating oil, for example from a vehicle, put it into a container that isn’t damaged and has a secure lid. Dispose of it at your nearest waste oil bank. Never pour oil down a drain or onto the ground. If you have waste fuel to dispose of, you need to be aware of the risk of fire or explosion. Don’t try to get rid of waste fuels yourself. Contact Ecoconserv company for disposal advice.

  • Pharmaceutical waste

    Disposing of pharmaceutical and other chemical waste such as lab waste can be highly problematic where there are no established treatment facilities. Waste can be minimised by careful stock keeping. Keep a record of the amount of each medicine that is needed and avoid ordering too much to prevent it going out of date. Establish a “first in first out” system in the pharmacy so that the packages which are going to expire first are dispensed first. Wherever possible, healthcare facilities should negotiate take-back agreements with suppliers, whereby the suppliers accept and dispose of pharmaceuticals that their customers cannot use. Various treatment and disposal options are available for different situations. Cheap and easily obtained chemicals can neutralize specific drugs, particularly chemotherapeutic agents. Many are listed in the Annexes of the WHO Guidelines on the Safe Management of Wastes from Healthcare Facilities (the Blue Book). These are particularly useful for small amounts of liquid residues, for example in IV sets. Inertisation and encapsulation procedures have long been recommended by WHO in emergency situations and they are just as applicable to low resource environments. Inertisation involves taking the pills out of the packaging, mixing with liquid concrete and depositing the concrete in a landfill before it sets. Encapsulation is the practice of putting the pharmaceuticals into barrels, which are then filled with concrete and landfilled. This can be done more cheaply and quickly since the pills will not have to be taken out of the PVC blister packs they are usually supplied in. These packs are not recyclable, so no useful resources are wasted. Finally, a little known technology called alkaline hydrolysis has good potential. It is capable of breaking down animal tissues, killing pathogens including prions and destroying hazardous chemicals including formaldehyde and chemotherapy drugs. More research is needed to validate its use for specific pharmaceuticals. It is cost competitive with incineration using air pollution control. Alkaline hydrolysis are marketed as tissue digesters for the destruction of human tissues and animal carcasses but can be used for either purpose. Unit capacities range from 10-15 kg to 4500kg per batch. The wastes are reacted with sodium or potassium hydroxide at around 110 to 130 degrees centigrade for around 3-8 hours depending on the system and the pressure at which it is operated. Some alkaline hydrolysis units produce a solid residue that can be landfilled, others generate a liquid effluent. Liquid effluents will have a high organic load and high pH but can be discharged into a sewer after neutralization or dilution.

  • Industrial effluent

    Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. It has existed since the start of the Industrial Revolution. Some examples of industrial waste are chemical solvents, paints, sandpaper, paper products, industrial by-products, metals, and radioactive wastes. Toxic waste, chemical waste, industrial solid waste and municipal solid waste are designations of industrial waste. Sewage treatment plants can treat some industrial wastes, i.e. those consisting of conventional pollutants such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Industrial wastes containing toxic pollutants require specialized treatment systems.

  • Medical waste

    Treatment of Medical Waste The primary methods of treatment and disposal of medical waste are: Incineration Autoclaves Mechanical/Chemical Disinfection Microwave Irradiation The treated waste - if sufficiently sterile - can generally be disposed with general waste in a sanitary landfill, or in some cases discharged into the sewer system. In the past, treatment of medical waste was primarily performed on-site at hospitals in dedicated medical waste facilities. Over time, the expense and regulation of these facilities have prompted organizations to hire contractors to collect, treat, and dispose of medical waste, and the percentage of medical organizations that perform their own treatment and disposal is expected to drop. To ensure that each treatment method provides the proper environment for the destruction of biologicals, test indicators for microbiological spores measure the treatment effectiveness. Microbiological spores are the most difficult of biologicals to destroy, so when the test package cannot be cultured after treatment, the waste is considered properly treated. In treatment methods where shredding or maceration is employed, the test package is inserted into the system after the shredding process to avoid physical destruction of the test package. The test package is then retrieved from the waste after treatment. Incineration According to the EPA, 90% of medical waste is incinerated. Incineration is the controlled burning of the medical waste in a dedicated medical waste incinerator. Among industry folks, these units are often referred to as hospital/medical/infectious waste incinerators (HMIWIs). The waste generally passes through the incinerator on a belt, and because most medical waste can be incinerated, the waste is not sorted or separated prior to treatment. Incineration has the benefit of reducing the volume of the waste, sterilizing the waste, and eliminating the need for pre-processing the waste before treatment. The resulting incinerated waste can be disposed of in traditional methods, such as brought to a landfill. The downside of incineration is potential pollution from emissions generated during incineration. The EPA has stringent requirements on emissions from medical incinerators. The incineration process can be applied to almost all medical waste types, including pathological waste, and the process reduces the volume of the waste by up to 90%. Modern incinerators can provide a secondary benefit by creating heat to power boilers in the facility. The largest concern associated with incineration is air pollution from emissions. The EPA says that at least 20% of medical waste is plastic. The biggest concern is that the incinerator may create toxic compounds. Dioxins and furans can be produced when these plastics burn. Older medical waste incinerators included no pollution control equipment. As new federal and state emission regulations are instituted that have more stringent requirements, medical incinerators are often not being replaced at the end of their service life. Over time, the amount of waste being incinerated will be reduced as other technologies replace on-site incinerators. Another concern is incinerator ash. As incinerators are designed or retrofitted with pollution prevention equipment, more of the potentially toxic chemicals that previously ended up in emissions now remain in the ash. Incinerator ash is generally disposed of in landfills. As additional requirements are added to the emissions for medical waste incinerators, the cost of incinerating medical waste increases, and alternative treatments have increased their market share. Autoclaves Autoclaves are closed chambers that apply both heat and pressure, and sometimes steam, over a period of time to sterilize medical equipment. Autoclaves have been used for nearly a century to sterilize medical instruments for re-use. Autoclaves are used to destroy microorganisms that may be present in medical waste before disposal in a traditional landfill. Medical waste that is subjected to an autoclave is often also subjected to a compaction process, such as shredding, after treatment so that it is no longer recognizable and cannot be re-used for other purposes. The compaction process reduces the volume of the treated waste significantly. After treatment and compaction, the treated waste can be combined with general waste and disposed of in traditional manners. Waste that is treated using an autoclave is still recognizable after treatment, and therefore must be shredded after treatment to allow for disposal with general waste. Autoclaves are not recommended for the treatment of pathological waste, because of the appearance of the waste after treatment and the possibility that pathological waste may contain low levels of radioactive material or cytotoxic compounds. One problem with autoclaves is that the process can aerosolize chemicals present in the waste and depending on the design of the autoclave, these chemicals can be released into the air when the autoclave is opened. Autoclaves can be used to process up to 90% of medical waste, and are easily scaled to meet the needs of any medical organization. Small counter-top autoclaves are often used for sterilizing reusable medical instruments while large autoclaves are used to treat large volumes of medical waste. Steam sterilization provides generators a way to treat waste in a cost-efficient manner. The destruction of the microorganisms is highly effective, but the problem comes when transportation is required. Many landfills and general incineration facilities are reluctant to accept the waste, fearing the waste is infectious. Recent work in Japan has found a method of chemicaly stabilizing heavy metals in fly ash from medical waste incinerators. Much development goes on in Japan, including recent work on a dual torch plasme arc furnace.

  • Recycling of industrial waste

    Waste Industries takes pride in exceeding the expectations of customers when providing a sustainable collaboration of services for each of the communities we service. With low-impact trucks, highly efficient route planning, and our commitment to offering highly affordable recycling solutions, we are always trying to find the next best step in decreasing our environmental footprint. Recycling is one of the prime opportunities in the waste industry to get everyone involved in helping give back to our community, and so Waste Industries has put together a few items that are designed to help boost our knowledge and commitment to recycling, helping to keep your home Green. Single-Stream Recycling Allowing you to recycle all goods in one bin, making recycling convenient and efficient for everyone in your home. On-site Separation A Waste Industries specialist will separate all your recyclables, taking the strain off your shoulders entirely. Unique Containers Waste Industries containers that show your commitment to being Green and your commitment to community sustainability. Personalized Training Sessions for education systems to help teach your family effective and appropriate recycling techniques. Uniquely Customized Our programs cater to your needs, letting you and your family get the most out of your recycling plan.

  • Collection and transfer of medical waste

    Medical waste collection and transfer The absence of medical waste collection separately and disposed of, there is the risk of the spread of disease to people and on top of hepatitis C, as well as from many health problems, environmental and financial which becomes inevitable. We are doing business medical waste, within the framework of applications that contribute to a clean city - a healthy society. The application of medical waste and defined The waste from medical institutions in collecting bags of different colors can be easily discerned. Household waste is put in bags, "black", either vaccines and medicine bottles in the bags are fed a "blue". The medical waste; sharp materials - hacks emerging from modules are satisfactory or unsatisfactory, contaminated, chemical, pharmaceutical, as well as all types of waste which carry infection or the possibility of carrying the infection, contaminated human tissue, or its members, cans of urine, blood or placenta, samples of bacteria, waste and emergency department of infectious diseases, bacteria and viruses Ahabsat in the air filters, Aldmadat and contaminated blood cotton, bandages and waste operations, cans medications, feces and stuff that has been contaminated by, the bodies of animals used for experiments, subjects patients waste in quarantine, they are placed in the bags "red". The sharps waste - hacks are placed in containers of waste "yellow" and is placed in red bags after placing the lid on them. The fact that the red bags with a thickness of 100 microns (with two layers), measuring 60 cm (width) * 85 cm (length), leak-proof, resistant to moisture, resistant to rupture and explosion in normal circumstances and have been glued Bbola polyethylene average. And there is the "International Medical Waste signal" phrases and "medical waste". Medical waste transfer vehicles Closed to cars entirely, coated with materials from the inside of the Garkablh rusty, easy to clean, elegant face, it is a window from the outside and painted in orange, reading "car medical waste"

  • Drug therapy and medical and industrial waste in incinerators

    Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.Incineration and other high-temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste, and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power. Incineration with energy recovery is one of several waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. While incineration and gasification technologies are similar in principle, the energy product from incineration is high-temperature heat whereas combustible gas is often the main energy product from gasification. Incineration and gasification may also be implemented without energy and materials recovery. In several countries, there are still concerns from experts and local communities about the environmental impact of incinerators (see arguments against incineration). In some countries, incinerators built just a few decades ago often did not include a materials separation to remove hazardous, bulky or recyclable materials before combustion. These facilities tended to risk the health of the plant workers and the local environment due to inadequate levels of gas cleaning and combustion process control. Most of these facilities did not generate electricity. Incinerators reduce the solid mass of the original waste by 80–85% and the volume (already compressed somewhat in garbage trucks) by 95–96%, depending on composition and degree of recovery of materials such as metals from the ash for recycling. This means that while incineration does not completely replace landfilling, it significantly reduces the necessary volume for disposal. Garbage trucks often reduce the volume of waste in a built-in compressor before delivery to the incinerator. Alternatively, at landfills, the volume of the uncompressed garbage can be reduced by approximately 70%[citation needed] by using a stationary steel compressor, albeit with a significant energy cost. In many countries, simpler waste compaction is a common practice for compaction at landfills. Incineration has particularly strong benefits for the treatment of certain waste types in niche areas such as clinical wastes and certain hazardous wastes where pathogens and toxins can be destroyed by high temperatures. Examples include chemical multi-product plants with diverse toxic or very toxic wastewater streams, which cannot be routed to a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Waste combustion is particularly popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource. Denmark and Sweden have been leaders in using the energy generated from incineration for more than a century, in localised combined heat and power facilities supporting district heating schemes. In 2005, waste incineration produced 4.8% of the electricity consumption and 13.7% of the total domestic heat consumption in Denmark. A number of other European countries rely heavily on incineration for handling municipal waste, in particular Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Germany and France

  • Movements of Hazardous Wastes

    Movements of Hazardous Wastes The product non-delivery of any shipment of hazardous waste for transport off-site without accompanied by the transport document, which includes the following information: the waste source, a waste product, disposer of the waste, the carrier waste, the subject of public notice or singles, the start of cross-border transport history, transportation, General description of the waste, information on special handling requirements including the provisions of the emergency, the type of packaging and the number of packages, weight and size, the announcement of the products health information and did not object to the competent authorities in all countries concerned parties, certificate of receipt of the disposer in the disposal facility designated and clarifying the style of the disposal and history In rounding. On the product do the following things before hazardous waste shipped off-site: * Packaging any hazardous waste and labeling them properly. * Fill the producers of waste in the transport document strictly according to the instructions contained in the document. * Ensure by appealing to the responsible state that the storage facility or treatment or disposal is intended to display the definition of who is responsible state number, and able to accept hazardous waste to be shipped, and has permission from the competent authorities (should this procedure are once for each hazardous waste are shipped). * Coordination with the storage facility or treatment or disposal meant about the acceptance of hazardous waste to be shipped. * Follow the instructions Shipping hazardous waste described in the transport document. * Must be the product of the carrier provides a complete copy of the safety data for each waste form before shipping. * Product that fills and packaging waste and labeling them according to regulations and instructions before shipped off-site and review the state body responsible for the details. * The product that the import or export of hazardous waste Contact Steering responsible state at least six weeks before shipping so as to obtain the document for the preparation of transport instructions must also get approval from the state body responsible for the transfer of hazardous waste across the border. Guidelines hazardous waste storage Considered hazardous waste storage operation in the sources and then transfer them to get rid of the basic steps to reduce the environmental pollution sites, as the storage or transport processes wrong can lead to exposing people to danger. The basic principle in proper storage is considered the process of separating the materials from each other and can be separated materials either isolate them in a separate building or isolate it in the same building with the walls of fireproof or leave voids sufficient between substances or put inert, including materials, and stop chapter on the amount of material stored and physical nature degree and chemicals and how they interact with each other, and the knowledge of the properties of materials under storage conditions affect the desired degree of separation. There is a minimum of storage on the process, including the following considerations: * Packaging: For glass containers used to store high-risk materials, it is necessary to be placed in containers within the broader able to absorb all the material if the container is broken, the glass must be of improvised resistance to interact with that article. - To be used in the explosive nature of waste commensurate with the quality of the materials stored by the storage and under appropriate storage conditions and to be containers of appropriate quality for transportation and storage. - It is necessary to store the waste in a protected against breakage or damage during handling containers operations are ongoing and that the inspection of the containers and make sure they are free of corrosion and rust and leak, and remove the damaged containers and clean up spilled them on the spot. - Storage containers should be closed to prevent leakage of fumes as he likes not to store chemical waste in flasks or open containers and be improvised covers of materials to prevent leakage of gas. * Posters: Should be placed posters showing the stored material in terms of being a burning or oxidizing or toxic substances, and that these posters showing the nature of the material transported and the degree of toxicity and appropriate ways to deal with it in the event of accidents occurring and spill, and that the label contains a chemical and commercial material and the conditions of appropriate storage her name * Transportation: You must obtain the approval of the responsible authorities regarding the technical specifications for used cars and tanks in the transport process as well as trained drivers. - Guidance signs should be placed on the means of transport which show the type of material transported and the degree of seriousness, and that the carrier is fully aware of the seriousness of the material transported and provide a contingency plan to deal with spills in case of accidents which may lead to a spill occurs. * Fire and Emergency: For there must be a warning device in emergency situations and know how to use it by working in the stores. - Must provide the materials necessary to combat spills of materials and equipment, as well as tools and fire-fighting equipment and keep them out of the area or stored for easy access when necessary. - There should be an automatic warning system sensitive areas and designed by the possibility of fire, and it will be inspected on an ongoing basis. * Storage: Must be isolated storage area away from buildings and other structures and fencing wall and prevent approaching them only for individuals working in the region, and that the stored material away from the walls and in an orderly fashion, leaving them adequate corridors and storage areas be cool, dry, well-ventilated, and storage buildings are fireproof. - Alcalh materials must be stored in containers flanged enough to contain the spill of those materials. - Stored material should be classified according to their nature, they are separated from each other heterogeneous materials and stored in different areas. - To be free from the storage area of sources of ignition, electric spark, heat sources and the use of electrical appliances and wiring and lighting safe against fire and anti-explosion to avoid an electric spark ignition lead to material stored. - Provide adequate ventilation and store equipment for the expulsion of gases and vapors to the outside of the store and avoid the use of air conditioners which you rotate these gases into the store. - Must be independent store allocation of liquids with a flash point of at least 32 ° C, as these liquids must be placed in sealed containers and the use of refrigerators and refrigerated warehouses for storing materials fast volatilization. - Should be taught the storage area in a clear and large letters to indicate the nature of the materials stored. - You must provide a special register substances stored and their locations. - Must be stored cylinders for compressed gases away from the sun and heat and flame and sources of electric spark and stored in a cool and dry places. Stored flammable and toxic gas cylinders, including above ground level are not allowed to be stored in basements. - You must install all gas cylinders in stocks for the prevention and the use of private vehicles in the transport and trading process. If the export of hazardous wastes for disposal outside the country, it must be export under international conventions and the way that does not harm the environment. Disposal operations Operations which do not lead to the possibility of resource recovery, or re-its, or drawn, or direct re-use or alternative uses. Branch includes (a) all get rid of this kind practiced in practice operations: * Sedimentation into the ground or above, such as ground filler, and so forth. * Land treatment, such as bio-decay or liquid mud wastes in the soil, and so on. * Deep injection, such as recoverable within the pump wells and salt domes or warehouses formed waste injection natural configuration, and so on. * Assembly surface, such as liquid waste or put into drilling mud and coastal ponds and lakes, and so on. * Digging tailor-made, such as putting waste in pits and stand-alone compact and covered each of which is isolated from the other and the environment, and so on. * Biological treatment, which result in final compounds or mixtures which are disposed of by any of the previous operations. * Physico-chemical treatment, which result in compounds or mixtures which are disposed of by any of the above mentioned processes, such as evaporation, drying, calcination, the equation, sedimentation. * IPA on the ground, at sea and the IPA. * Permanent storage, such as container placed inside the mine. * Confused or mixing prior to submission to any of the operations in the past. * Repackaging prior to submission to any of the above mentioned operations. * Storage pending submission to any of the above mentioned operations. * Processes that may lead to resource recovery or re-spin or learned, or re-used in direct or alternative uses: Includes branch (b) all these processes in respect of articles knowledge law as hazardous or considered material substances dangerous and which are not subject to these operations are directed towards Operations described in section (a). * Use as a fuel (other than in direct IPA) or means to generate energy. * Solvents used in the extraction / retrieval. * Recycling / reclamation of organic materials which are used as solvents. * Recycling / reclamation of metals and metal compounds. * Recycling / reclamation of other inorganic materials. * Retrieve acids or bases. * Retrieve the ingredients used to reduce pollution. * Retrieve the components of cofactors. * Re-refining used oil or other new uses of previously used oils. * Address the ground that benefit the agriculture or lead to the improvement of the environment. * Uses remaining material resulting from any of the previous operations. * Exchange of wastes for submission to any of the previous operations.

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